Rapid degradation of peri-urban ecosystems is resulting in a loss of associated ecosystem services. Water provision, storm-and waste-water regulation, along with protection from natural disasters and erosion, are the impacted services that most acutely affect poor or vulnerable populations. The poor may be disproportionately impacted by loss of ecosystem services due to lack of political power around land use decision making and limited alternatives for livelihoods, housing, or basic services. Vulnerability extends to urban populations that depend on the ecosystem services provided by or flowing through peri-urban areas. Often, the loss of ecosystems is irreversible and the replacement of associated services is costly, if even possible.