Bellagio Library/

The Crossroads of Globalization: A Latin American View

by Alfredo Toro Hardy

Image is of the book cover for The Crossroads of Globalization: A Latin American View.Alfredo Toro Hardy participated in the Bellagio residency program in 2011 and 2017. During his 2017 residency he worked on The Crossroads of Globalization: A Latin American View. He has authored 21 books and co-authored 15 more, most of which concern international affairs. A retired diplomat, Alfredo has occupied some of Venezuela’s top ambassadorial posts.  

A few words with Alfredo

“The conceptualization and elaboration of the first draft took place while in residence. The superb beauty of Villa Serbelloni, Bellagio, and Lake Como, together with the enriching interchange of thoughts with my fellow residents, served me exceedingly well, not only to find inspiration, but to put in good order the ideas that were beginning to emerge. It was, in all aspects, a magical experience.”


Globalization is caught between decline and expansion. The Crossroads of Globalization asks, in which of those directions should Latin America move?

This uncertainty hinders the region’s strategic vision. As a result of these forces beyond its control, it must anticipate unforeseen events to the best of its abilities and react to or act upon them. Strategic reflection becomes imperative in order to manage both uncertainty and the possibility of rapid change.

The Crossroads of Globalization analyzes fraught international surroundings, examining the forces that push for and against globalization, in an attempt to measure their respective strength, convergence capacity, and potential impact. With this analysis in hand, it will be easier to envisage where the trends are leading to, and by extension, where Latin America may end up.

Explore More

To find out more about Alfredo’s work, listen to him discuss his scholarship on an episode of the London Politica Podcast. You can also read the preface to The Crossroads of Globalization.

During Alfredo’s 2011 residency at Bellagio, he worked on The World Turned Upside Down: The Complex Partnership between China and Latin America.

You can read an interview with Alfredo about his latest book, America’s Two Cold Wars: From Hegemony to Decline? with the Global Labor Organization.